Bigfoot/Sasquatch/Hairy Man DNA
The search for bigfoot DNA is not a new endeavor. Before NABS came onto the bigfoot scene there have been many individuals and a few groups that have pursued answers to bigfoot’s genetic puzzle. NABS did not want to reinvent the wheel so we pursued a path of understanding what efforts and results had been made and what institutions had been involved. First, let’s understand the two types of DNA we will be utilizing when we go to testing.
Read about the DNA study that North America Bigfoot Search started:http://www.denovojournal.com/#!special-issue/crrc
A definition of the types of DNA.
Definition from http://WWW.dna.gov
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has provided forensic scientists with a valuable tool for determining the source of DNA recovered from damaged, degraded, or very small biological samples. MtDNA is a small circular genome located in the mitochondria, which are located outside of a cell's nucleus. Most human cells contain hundreds of copies of mtDNA genomes, as opposed to two copies of the DNA that is located in the nucleus. This high copy number increases the likelihood of recovering sufficient DNA from compromised DNA samples, and for this reason, mtDNA can play an important role in missing persons investigations, mass disasters, and other forensic investigations involving samples with limited biological material. Additionally, mtDNA is maternally inherited. Therefore, barring a mutation, an individual's mother, siblings, as well as all other maternally-related family members will have identical mtDNA sequences. As a result, forensic comparisons can be made using a reference sample from any maternal relative, even if the unknown and reference sample are separated by many generations.
Nuclear DNA- The DNA of the chromosomes found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
Starting the NABS DNA Project
The first place that NABS turned for information about bigfoot DNA was “The Track Record”, a newsletter produced by Ray Crowe for 17 years. There was not an index for the track record at the time, we reviewed all 174 documents and gleaned the DNA articles and submissions. NABS has since done the work for you, here is what is under “DNA” in the Track Record Newsletter now produced and released by NABS on CD (http://www.nabigfootsearch.com/TrackRecord.html)
DNA TR 47 Pg 6, TR 48 Pg 14, TR 49 Pg 2, 11, TR 50 Pg 6, TR 52 Pg 15, TR 54 Pg 2, 8, TR 55 Pg 1, 5, TR 57 Pg 3, TR 58 Pg 14, TR 65 Pg 10, TR 67 Pg 2, TR 69 Pg 3-6, TR 70 Pg 3, TR 71, Pg 9, TR 73 Pg 2, TR 74 PG 16, TR 75 Pg 5, 12, TR 85 Pg 4, TR 94 Pg 14, TR 95 Pg 6, TR 103 Pg 11, TR 105 Pg 9, TR 106 Pg 10, TR 112 Pg 8, TR 113 Pg 18, TR 114 Pg 14, TR 115 Pg 15, TR 116 Pg 6, TR 118 Pg 13, TR 120 Pg 17, TR 122 Pg 17, TR 123 Pg 11, 12, TR 124 Pg 1, 2, TR 125 Pg 10, 12, TR 126 Pg 14, TR 127 Pg 6, 9, TR 128 Pg 6, TR 129 Pg 4, 7, TR 130 Pg 5-6, 12, 13, TR 131 Pg 9, TR 132 Pg 15, TR 133 Pg 11, 13, TR 134 Pg 4, 14, TR 135 Pg 15, TR 136 Pg 2, TR 138 Pg 2, 3 (Carter/Coy Farm), 4, 7, 8, TR 139 Pg 18, TR 141 Pg 3, 10, TR 145 Pg 15, TR 146 Pg 3, 5, 9, TR 147 Pg 11, TR 148 Pg 16, TR 149 Pg 12, 14, TR 151 Pg 3, 6, 17, TR 152 Pg 5, TR 153 Pg 12, 15, TR 154 Pg 13, TR 156 Pg 1, 2, TR 157 Pg 10, TR 158 Pg 2, 3, 12, 14, TR 160 Pg 4, 7, TR 161 Pg 3, TR 161 Pg 4, 7, TR 163 Pg 2, 6, 7 (Carter Farm), TR 164 Pg 8, 17, TR 165 Pg 11, 13, TR 166 Pg 12, 18, TR 167 Pg 2, 14, TR 169 Pg 16, TR 170 Pg 11, TR 171 Pg 15, TR 172 Pg 5, 8, 9, TR 173 Pg 13, TR 174 Pg 7
After reviewing the Track Record documents we turned to the web to see what it had to offer, not much. The year we undertook this review was 2005 and many of the television shows about bigfoot did not exist.
The results of our research found that over 95% of the DNA on purported bigfoot specimens returned as “Human”. NABS found this as an extremely puzzling result considering the “BIG” names in the bigfoot world that consider themselves researchers proclaimed that bigfoot was a type of ape. Many of these “researchers” claimed that the DNA showing “human” was compromised or contaminated and the results should be disregarded. We saw this same discussion time after time, discount the results, they are wrong. Again, almost every moderately famous researcher known for investigating bigfoot issues proclaimed the studies and results were flawed, every one!
NABS was also conducting research on the Native American ties to bigfoot as we were also investigating bigfoot DNA. We read every possible document we could find that related to the relationship between Hairy Man and Native American Tribes. In an amazing contradiction to what the famous bigfoot researchers were stating, Native American Tribes were calling the hairy bipeds “People.” There wasn’t one document that we could find where Native Americans called them apes, gorilla’s or any other primate other then “People.”
This is where research for NABS started to turn a big corner.
We asked many of the polite and approachable researchers why some other “BIG Name” researchers have completely ignored the statements of Native Americans regarding the human quality of hairy people? NABS received the same statement time after time, some researchers based their entire careers on bigfoot being an ape or gorilla, they wrote many books about this, appeared in documentaries and essentially leveraged everything they owned on the ape hypothesis, they had to ignore Native Americans and they had to discount DNA findings. Every famous researcher and almost every large and well-known bigfoot website continued to proclaim that bigfoot was an ape or gorilla. In fact, one of the largest of these websites altered sighting reports to change the physical description of the biped to appear more as an ape and less human. Witnesses reporting to this site were asked to speak with an artist and this artist continued to draw ape looking bipeds in direct conflict to what the witness was stating what they observed. How does NABS know this, witnesses have come to us at conferences explaining these exact scenarios and how each episode evolved. These witnesses saw Harvey Pratt’s (http://www.nabigfootsearch.com/Team.html) drawing of other witnesses and stated that this is what they saw, not something looking like an ape. **Now, we will advise that we believe that there are bipeds in the wild that may have a somewhat ape looking appearance, but, we do not believe they are anything close to ape’s or gorilla’s on the genetic scale, we’ve stated this from the beginning of our quest. This is not any indication of what our genetic testing may show, we still don’t know all of the results.
With the knowledge that a vast majority of bigfoot DNA tested in the past returned as human, the knowledge that Native Americans called them “humans”, NABS started our organization with the intent to put this issue to bed, permanently. NABS knew we could build relationships with competent and credible researchers and get the samples necessary to prove where bigfoot was on the genetic scale. It would appear that most of the big name researchers wanted no part of this study, instead they left the professional and credible world and took a path of embarrassment for the entire bigfoot research world. The intelligent branch of the bigfoot research world saw the writing on the wall, they knew what was coming down the road, answers, answers that the public was due and were being withheld by those same big name researchers, documentary film producers and the old time hierarchy in the bigfoot world.
NABS had the funding to make a sustained effort at the DNA issue. The effort started by locating the optimum location to test specimens. NABS interviewed several scientists. The interest level and competency ran the gamut. One person stood out amongst all others interviewed, Dr. Melba Ketchum of DNA Diagnostics. We explained what out Mission Statement was and our sincerity to keep this at a highly scientific level. NABS started this DNA study and we will be there when it completes. Dr. Ketchum stated she was interested and NABS sent her our first specimen, hair found on the Hoopa Reservation in Northern California.(http://www.nabigfootsearch.com/TheHoopaProject.html).
Dr. Melba Ketchum
As part of the hair recovery and identification process, Dr. Ketchum employed the services of a hair and fiber expert that she had previously known through his expert courtroom testimony. This individual works for a prominent institution who allowed him to work our project and volunteer his time. This person reviews all hair samples and compares them to all known hair and fiber and ensures the samples meet the criteria for bigfoot/sasquatch/hairy man. He photographs the hair and then passes it onto Dr. Ketchum for DNA testing. If the specimen doesn’t pass the hair and fiber testing phase, it does not move onto DNA testing. It should be stated that bigfoot/sasquatch/hairy man hair has distinct physical features that does not match any known hair or fiber.
The Ullibarri Sample
Many of the pessimists in the public spectrum and many of the researchers in the bigfoot world never want NABS and our group of other researchers to prove what bigfoot really may be, unless it comes back as an ape or gorilla. A few have stated that we really can’t prove where the samples come from thus we really can’t say it’s from a bigfoot. WRONG.
Raven Ullibarri lived at the end of a long road in Hoopa. Her house sat next to the forest next to thick and old growth forests. One night Raven was at home and heard something near her tin shed on the side of the house. She kept her garbage in the shed and she knew that bears sometimes wandered into the yard and she was attempting to keep them from making a mess. While on her phone with the police, Raven went out her front door and saw something that she will never forget. Raven saw a huge biped leaning over the door of the shed reaching into the plastic garbage bags. The biped heard Raven and looked up. Raven saw a human looking face, hairy huge upper body and hands that were grabbing bags. As the biped turned and started to walk into the woods on two legs and carrying a bag in each hand Raven had an excellent view of its massive hairy back and legs. Raven had her phone in her hand and had already called the police who were responding to her call, they arrived just as the biped entered the forest.
NABS interviewed one of the responding police officers in the Ullibarri case. He stated that he could feel the earth moving as though something huge was walking in the woods. Another police officer arrived and both went into the woods looking for the biped. The police officer I interviewed stated that it was one of the scariest events he ever responded. He stated that when he was in the forest he could feel a presence and knew the biped was nearby. He stated that it was deathly quiet and the thunderous steps had stopped once he started into the forest. The officers eventually retreated from the woods and looked at the shed where the biped was leaning. They did find many strands of kinky odd-looking hair directly at the point that the biped was leaning. The day after this event, a researcher recovered the hair which was sent to Dr. Ketchum.
**Understand, NABS has submitted many samples from across the U.S. to Dr. Ketchum for analysis. The Ullibarri sample is being used as an example here because it was previously documented and discussed in Tribal Bigfoot and on Coast to Coast Radio (http://www.coasttocoastam.com/show/2010/08/29).
Review of the Ullibarri Events
Raven observes a hairy biped take garbage.
Raven signs an affidavit to the facts surrounding the sighting.
Raven completes a forensic drawing of the biped with Harvey Pratt.
A police officer responds to Ravens residence, feels thunderous footsteps and feels a presence in the woods and observes odd looking hair on the shed.
The police officer signs an affidavit to the events at Raven’s residence.
The hair from Raven’s is sent to the hair and fiber expert. He confirms that it does not match any known hair or fiber that exists today. He states that the hair does have properties that make it appear to be some type of primate, an unknown primate. The hair is sent to Dr. Ketchum for DNA extraction.
Dr. Ketchum attempts to extract DNA from the Ullibarri sample. We find that DNA cannot be extracted from the shaft of the hair, we must use the root or tissue tag. Dr. Ketchum obtains highly unusual results, which are documented in David Paulides’ book, Tribal Bigfoot. (http://www.nabigfootsearch.com/tribalbigfoot.html).
While the Ullibarri sample may not be the perfect scenario, it clearly, factually and legally depicts a chain of events that identify a hairy biped visiting a yard, leaving behind hair that is identified and tested.
Everyone involved in the DNA study that NABS started is locked into a non-disclosure agreement that does not allow any of the participants from releasing data to the public. We can tell you that the results are nearly completed. We can also tell you that there will be no other lab in the world that will get the results any sooner then what Dr. Ketchum and her team have accomplished. There have been major hurdles in the extraction and identification of the DNA and it was those hurdles that caused significant delay. It was Dr. Ketchum’s absolute commitment and persistence that overcame enormous technical issues that helped overcome DNA extraction issues. If it were not for the scientific acumen, persistent nature and dogged pursuit of answers by Dr. Ketchum and her team, we doubt these answers would ever be forthcoming in the months ahead.
When test results on all samples are completed, Dr. Ketchum and her team are going to present a scientific white paper to a noted journal for peer review. These journals do not accept papers for review when the results had previously been released to the public, they must first be presented to the journal. The journal reviews the findings that are submitted and then either accepts the document for publication or rejects it. All involved in this project believe the peer review process will eliminate many of the doubters and force scientific institutions to take the topic seriously and dedicate funds for additional research.
Please don’t think that NABS has been waiting on the sidelines while Dr. Ketchum and her team conduct DNA testing. We have been submitting additional samples for testing and, we are working on a monolithic project that is fascinating, evolving and will shock many people outside of the bigfoot world. No, this project did not evolve from the DNA study, it is different, very different from anything any other group has ever attempted. You will hear more about our ongoing efforts in the future.
***Please do not contact Dr. Ketchum directly with any questions or samples. She is overwhelmed with completing the project and would prefer you direct any questions through NABS. If you have samples that are interested in submitting, send us an email and we will review the request. All submissions submitted after February 15, 2011 will be placed on hold until after the white paper is submitted.
Questions or comments to: firstname.lastname@example.org